FULL TITLE: Evaluation of teeth injuries in Beagle dogs caused by autoclaved beef bones used as a chewing item to remove dental calculus
CITATION: Pinto CFD, Lehr W, Pignone VN, Chain CP, Trevizan L (2020) Evaluation of teeth injuries in Beagle dogs caused by autoclaved beef bones used as a chewing item to remove dental calculus. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228146.
Dental calculus (DC) is the most widespread oral problem in domestic dogs. Chewing items are used to remove DC from the tooth surface; they also favor oral health and animal welfare. Raw beef bone mastication also shortly reduces DC in adult dogs. However, it can cause oral lesions and hence is not popular. This study evaluated the impact of bone mastication on the dental roots, enamel, and gingiva of dogs. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in a completely randomized block design: cortical bone (CB) or spongy bone (SB). Intraoral radiographs were obtained on days 0 and 14, and calculus assessment was performed using images captured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14; an integration program was used to measure the proportion between the area covered by calculus and the total area of teeth. DC was completely removed from the first and second premolars and molars from both the arcades in less than 3 days of supplementation, indicating that these teeth were frequently used for chewing (P < 0.10). Bones were highly effective for DC removal and gingival inflammation reduction. Despite the hardness of bones, no lesions or teeth root and enamel fracture, or esophageal or intestinal obstructions—complications related to bone ingestion—were noted. However, SB showed some gingival lesions (n = 4) and bone remnants between teeth (n = 2). Gingival lesions were caused by the daily and continuous supply of new pieces of bone for 13 days. Specific pieces of bone should be used for oral home care programs because they shortly remove almost 90% of DC, allowing longer intervals between periodontal cleaning procedures. Long-term studies are required to evaluate the use of bones and evaluate their impact on teeth and periodontium after prolonged supplementation.